Browsing Category "Kumpulan Soal Ujian Masuk Universitas"



This section is designed to measure your ability to recognize language that is appropriate for standard written English. There are two types of questions in this section, with special directions for each type.
Directions: Questions 1-15 are incomplete sentences. Beneath each sentence you will see four words or phrases, marked (A), (B), (C), and (D). Choose the one word or phrase that best completes the sentence.
Then, on your answer sheet, find the number of the question and fill in the space that corresponds to the letter of the answer you have chosen. Fill in the space so that the letter inside the oval cannot be seen.
Example I
……are found in virtually every country in the world.
(A) Swamps and marshes which
(B) When swamps and marshes
(C) Swamps and marshes
(D) Now that swamps and marshes
The sentence should read, “Swamps and marshes are found in virtually every country in the world.”
Therefore, you should choose answer (C).
Example II
Milk is pasteurized by heating it for thirty minutes at about 63° Centigrade, rapidly cooling it, and then ……it at a temperature below 10° Centigrade.
(A) to store
(B) store
(C) be stored
(D) storing
The sentence should read, “Milk is pasteurized by heating it for thirty minutes at about 63° Centigrade, rapidly cooling it, and then storing it at a temperature below 10° Centigrade.” Therefore, you should choose answer (D).
Now begin work on the questions.
Sample Answer
Sample Answer
4 -2.1-

  1. A special computerized camera, called the Dykstraflex, ______ to create the illusion of movement of the spaceships in the film Star Wars.
    (A) designed
    (B) its design
    (C) was designed
    (D) with its design
  2. Studies have shown that drug interactions may create serious problems, with effects ______ from high blood pressure to sudden cardiac arrest.
    (A) it ranges
    (B) may range
    (C) the range
    (D) ranging
  3. ______ was once Poland’s most respected playwright, but he remained relatively unknown inWestern Europe.
    (A) The fact that Tadeus Micinski
    (B) TadeusMicinski, who
    (C) Although TadeusMicinski
    (D) TaduesMicinski
  4. The Neanderthals are best known for their skill inmaking stone tools, which ______many kinds of scrapers and pointed implements.
    (A) including
    (B) include
    (C) are included
    (D) inclusively
  5. ______ children are so immersed in computer games that they are oblivious to their surroundings.
    (A) Most
    (B) Most of
    (C) Themost
    (D) Themost of
  6. Research on autism has predominantly focused on children, ______ research projects devoted to low-functioning adult autistics are exceedingly low.
    (A) whereas
    (B) when
    (C) whereby
    (D) because
  7. Many studies reveal that themore friends and relatives people have, ______.
    (A) longer life they have
    (B) then they live longer
    (C) the longer they live
    (D) they live a longer life
  8. Hemaglobin is the part of the red cells that captures oxygen in the lungs and ______ to the body tissues.
    (A) its delivery
    (B) delivering it
    (C) delivers it
    (D) to deliver
  9. As a tropical archipelago, Indonesia became famous for her flora and fauna, ______ are still being found today.
    (A) many
    (B) many of which
    (C) many of them
    (D) that many
  10. Invented in 1595, the backstaff was a device that enabled seafarers to determine ______.
    (A) what was the distance to the north of the equator
    (B) so far north were they from the equator
    (C) when they were far north of the equator
    (D) how far north they were from the equator 5 -2.1-
  11. Not only ______ master the skill to collaborate with lawyers from other jurisdictions, but they also have a good understanding of global legal systems.
    (A) international lawyers, they
    (B) do international lawyers
    (C) are international lawyers
    (D) international lawyers
  12. Depriving children of access to good health care and nutrition during their early childhood ______ of learning difficulties and diseases later in their lives.
    (A) increases the likelihood
    (B) to increase the likelihood
    (C) the likelihood increased
    (D) increasing the likelihood
  13. Uncle Tom’s Cabin, ______, was instrumental in the abolition of slavery in the United States.
    (A) was written by Harriet B. Stowe
    (B) the book written by Harriet B. Stowe
    (C) Harriet B. Stowe wrote the book
    (D) it was written by Harriet B. Stowe
  14. Survey sampling is a widely accepted method for providing statistical data ______ a research project.
    (A) though doing
    (B) how to do
    (C) when doing
    (D) to do it in
  15. With eyes moving independently of each other, ______ and predatorsmore easily.
    (A) seahorses’ ability to spot potential food
    (B) spotting potential food by seahorses
    (C) seahorses are able to spot potential food
    (D) the potential ability of seahorses to spot food
  16. The early 1980s, El Nino caused greater than average precipitation along the west coast of NorthAmerica.
  17. The zebra has excellent hearing and a good sense of smelling, but lacks sharp eyesight.
  18. Lanoxin, used for the treatment of heart failure, may cause irregular heart rhythm if it is using in
    increased doses.
  19. One new strategy for to control malaria is using pesticides-treated bed nets which protect people from mosquitoes.
  20. Beagles have better scent receptors than other dogs, and show no aggressive toward people.
  21. Brazil hit the energy jackpot when Petrobars, the state energy company, struck oil in giant fields deep below the floor of Atlantic Ocean.
    Directions: In questions 16-40 each sentence has four underlined words or phrases. The four underlined parts of the sentence aremarked (A), (B), (C), and (D). Identify the one underlined word or phrase that must be changed in order for the sentence to be grammatically correct. Then, on your answer sheet, find the number of the question and fill in the space that  orresponds to the letter of the answer you have chosen.
    Example I
    Meadowlarks are about the same size than robins.
    but they have heavier bodies, shorter tails, and longer bills.
    The sentence should read. “Meadowlarks are about the same size as robins, but they have heavier bodies, shorter tails, and longer bills.” Therefore, you should choose answer (B).
    Example II
    When overall exports exceed imports, a country said to have a trade surplus.
    The sentence should read, “When overall exports exceed imports, a country is said to have a  trade surplus.” Therefore, you should choose answer (C).
    Now begin work on the questions.
    A B C D
    A B C D
    Sample Answer
    A B C D
    Sample Answer
    A B C D
    A B C D
    A B C D
    A B C D
    A B C D
    A B C D
    A B C D
  22. It takes time and education to eliminate prejudice in striving to implementing equal rights for women.
  23. The report reveals that the entire U.S. seaweed harvest come from the coastal waters off South California.
  24. It was not until 3000 years ago when seafarers traveling on the oceans used compasses to navigate their wooden ships
  25. Buildings account for about forty percent of our energy consumption; therefore, the effort increased energy efficiency is of primary importance.
  26. The owners of the French soft drink company Orangina is said to be near an agreement to sell the company to Suntory of Japan.
  27. The goal of fusion phycisist is to use the heat from a fusing plasma to keep the reaction going indefinitely without the need to pump in external energy.
  28. Themagnitude of the earthquake inWest Sumatra was such severe that three villages were deeply buried after deadly landslides came crashing down on them.
  29. A 32-year-old Germanmeteorologist by the name of Alfred L.Wegener contended that all the present continents used to form one supercontinent called as Pangaea.
  30. Between the late fifteenth and early seventeenth centuries, explorers paid by trading companies to create new trade routes and find new countries in the world.
  31. Some ancient fern-like plants covering the landmillions of years ago were as large like trees with giant fronds at the top of straight trunks.
  32. Often the size and weigh of a small truck, satellites take years to be built and launched at a cost that can exceed $10 billion.
  33. The balmy climate and beauty of Corfu, one of the Greek islands, havemade them a popular place for tourists around the world to spend their vacation.
    A B C D
    A B C D
    A B C D
    A B C D
    A B C D
    A B C D
    A B C D
    A B C D
    A B C D
    A B C D
    A B C D
    A B C D
    8 -2.1-
  34. Despite the pressures of the global recession, many companies are active involved in activities to lessen the impact of the financial crisis on the needy in society.
  35. Sent on a tradingmission to Japan in 1653, Hendrik Hamel, a bookkeeper for the Dutch East India Company, was shipwrecked on an island near from Korea.
  36. Indonesia has been known as the Spice Islands ever since spices brought to Europe and changed the taste buds of Europeans forever.
  37. The broad-tailed hummingbird nests on the lowest branch of an aspen tree as it provides a good view of  approaching predators, a clear flight path, and protect for its young.
  38. In his speech at the annual convention of the political party, the chairman did an emotional appeal for funds to help rebuild the region struck by the earthquake.
  39. Because of there are rarely any outward symptoms of high blood pressure, it is important to have one’s blood pressure checked regularly.
  40. Poland is quickly emerging as one of the few bright spots in a recession-torn Europe hit hard by the economics crisis.
    A B C D
    A B C D
    A B C D
    A B C D
    A B C D
    A B C D
    A B C D
    9 -2.1-
    Directions: In this section you will read several passages. Each passage is followed by questions about it. Choose the one best answer, (A), (B), (C), or (D), for each question. Then, on your answer sheet, find the number of the question and fill in the oval that corresponds to the letter of your answer choice.
    Answer all questions based on what is stated or implied in the passage.
    Read the following passage:
    A new hearing device is now available for some hearing-impaired people. This device uses a magnet to hold the detachable sound-processing portion in place. Like other aids, it converts sound into vibrations. But it is unique in that it can transmit the vibrations directly to the magnet, and then to the inner ear. This produces a clearer sound. The new device will not help all hearing-impaired people, only those with a hearing loss caused by infection or some other problem in the middle ear. It will probably help no more than 20 percent of all people with hearing problems. Those people, however, who have persistent ear infections should find relief and restored hearing with the new device.
    Example I:
    What is the author’s main purpose?
    (A) to describe a new cure for ear infections
    (B) to inform the reader of a new device
    (C) to urge doctors to use a new device
    (D) to explain the use of a magnet
    The author’s main purpose is to inform the reader of a new device for hearing-impaired people.
    Therefore, you should choose answer (B).
    Example II:
    The word “relief” in line 7 means
    (A) less distress
    (B) assistance
    (C) distraction
    (D) relaxation
    The phrase “less distress” is similar in meaning to “relief” in this sentence. Therefore, you should choose answer (A).
    Now begin with the questions.
    Sample Answer
    A B C D
    Sample Answer
    A B C D
    10 -2.1-
    Questions 41 – 50
    Magicians are, first and foremost, artists of attention and awareness. They manipulate the focus and intensity of human attention, controlling, at any given instant, what we are aware of and what we are not. They do so in part by employing bewildering combinations of visual illusions, optical illusions, special effects, sleight of hand, secret devices andmechanical artifacts. But themost versatile instrument in their bag of tricksmay be the ability to create cognitive illusions. Like visual illusions, cognitive illusionsmask the perception of physical reality yet unlike visual illusions, cognitive illusions are not sensory in nature. Rather they involve high-level functions such as attention, memory and causal inference.With all those tools at their disposal, well-practicedmagiciansmake it virtually impossible to follow the physics of what is actually happening—leaving the impression that the only explanation for the events ismagic.
    Neuroscientists are just beginning to catch up with themagician’s facility in manipulating attention and cognition. Of course, the aims of neuroscience are different from those of magic; the neuroscientist seeks to understand the brain and neuron underpinnings of cognitive functions, whereas themagician wantsmainly to exploit cognitive weaknesses. Yet the techniques developed by magicians over centuries of stagemagic could also be subtle and powerful probes in the hands of neuroscientists, supplementing and perhaps expanding the instruments already in experimental use.
    Neuroscience is becoming familiar with the methods of magic by subjecting magic itself to scientific study—in some cases showing for the first time how some of its methods work in the brain.
    Many studies of magic conducted so far confirm what is known about cognition and attention from earlier work in experimental psychology. A cynicmight dismiss such efforts:Why do yet another study that simply confirms what is already well known? But such criticism misses the importance and purpose of the studies. By investigating the techniques of magic,  euroscientists can familiarize themselves withmethods that they can adapt to their own purposes. Indeed, we believe that cognitive neuroscience could have advanced faster had investigators  robed magicians’ intuition earlier. Even today, magiciansmay have a few tricks up their sleeves that neuroscientists have not yet adopted.
    By applying the tools of magic, neuroscientists can hope to learn how to design more robust experiments and to createmore effective cognitive and visual illusions for exploring the neural bases  of attention and awareness. Such techniques could not only make experimental studies of cognition possible with clever and highly attentive subjects; they could also lead to diagnostic and treatment  methods for patients suffering from specific cognitive deficits, such as attention deficits resulting from brain trauma, Alzheimer’s disease, and the like. Themethods of magicmight also be put to work in “tricking” patients to focus on the most important parts of their therapy, while suppressing distractions that cause confusion and disorientation.
  41. Which of the following is NOT a reason the author callsmagicians “artists of attention and awareness”?
    (A) Magicians can control our awareness.
    (B) Magicians can create illusions to trick us.
    (C) Magicians canmake impossible things possible.
    (D) Magicians can combine various tricks to manipulate our attention.
  42. Which of the following does the author NOT list as characteristic of visual and cognitive illusions?
    (A) Visual illusions mask the perception of physical reality.
    (B) Visual illusions involve attention,memory and causal inference.
    (C) Cognitive illusions are unrelated to our physical senses.
    (D) Cognitive illusions are themost sophisticated type of tricks created by magicians.
  43. All of the following are instruments used by magicians to create illusions EXCEPT
    (A) human attention.
    (B) optical illusions.
    (C) special effects.
    (D) skilful handmovements.
  44. The term “versatile” in line 4 is closest in meaning to
    (A) adaptable.
    (B) unique.
    (C) complicated.
    (D) satisfactory.
  45. It can be inferred from the passage that neuroscientists
    (A) have been outsmarted by magicians in the study of the brain.
    (B) have similar aims as magicians in their study of the brain.
    (C) should borrowmagicians’methods to study the brain.
    (D) should learn to be magicians to better study the brain.
  46. According to the passage, themethods of magic can help neuroscientists
    (A) design better experiments.
    (B) exploit cognitive weaknesses.
    (C) enrich their instruments for understanding the brain.
    (D) bemore familiar with the tools of magic.
  47. The term “cynic” inline 20 is closest in meaning to
    (A) pessimist.
    (B) agnostic.
    (C) skeptic.
    (D) enemy.
  48. The word “their” in line 32 refers to
    (A) neuroscientists.
    (B) tricks.
    (C) magicians.
    (D) magicians’ sleeves.
  49. The main idea of the passage is
    (A) neuroscience should adopt themethods of magic to advance its own purpose.
    (B) neuroscience should be familiar with the methods of magic to prevent its abuse by magicians.
    (C) neuroscience should be wary of the interference of themethods of magic in the study of the brain.
    (D) neuroscience should incorporatemagic as parts of its discipline.
  50. All of the following are given in the passage as ways in which the tools of magic can be useful to neuroscientists EXCEPT
    (A) They help neuroscientists design better experiments.
    (B) They help neuroscientists create confusion and disorientation to trick their patients.
    (C) They help neuroscientists find better diagnostic and treatment methods.
    (D) They help neuroscientists keep their patients’ focus on the important aspects of therapy.
    12 -2.1-
    Questions 51 – 60
    To appreciate just how distinctive bats are, consider one of their trademark traits: wings. A few mammals, such as flying squirrels, can glide from tree to tree, thanks to a flap of skin that  connects their front and hind limbs. And in fact, experts generally agree that bats probably evolved from an arboreal, gliding ancestor. But amongmammals, bats alone are capable of powered flight, which is a muchmore complex affair than gliding. They owe this ability to the construction of their wings. The bones of a bat’s wings consist of greatly elongated forearm and finger bones that support and spread the thin, elastic wing membranes. Themembranes extend backward to encompass hind limbs that are quite a bit smaller than those of a terrestrial mammal of comparable body size. Many bats also have a tail membrane between their hind legs.
    Most bats can also echolocate. By producing high-pitched sounds and then analyzing the returning echoes, these nocturnal animals can detect obstacles and prey much better than by using vision alone. More than 85 percent of living bat species use echolocation to navigate. The rest belong to a single family—the OldWorld fruit bats, sometimes called flying foxes, which apparently lost the ability and instead rely strictly on sight and smell to find the fruit and flowers they feed on. Echolocating bats have a distinctive set of anatomical, neurological and behavioral characteristics that enable them to send and receive high-frequency sounds.
    The revelation more than 60 years ago that most of the world’s bats can “see with sound”made clear that echolocation contributes significantly to the great evolutionary success and diversity of bats. But which of the two key bat adaptations—flight and echolocation—came first, and how and why did they evolve? The flight-first hypothesis holds that bat ancestors evolved powered flight as a way of improvingmobility and reducing the amount of time and energy required for foraging. Under this scenario, echolocation evolved subsequently tomake it easier for early bats to detect and track prey that they were already chasing in flight.
    In contrast, the echolocation-first model proposes that gliding protobats hunted aerial prey from their perches in the trees using echolocation, which evolved to help them track their quarry a greater distances. Powered flight evolved later to increasemaneuverability and to simplify returning to the hunting perch. The tandem-development hypothesis, for its part, suggests that flight and echolocation evolved simultaneously. This idea is based on  experimental evidence showing that it is energetically very costly for bats to produce  cholocation calls when they are stationary. During flight, however, the cost becomes nearly negligible because contraction of the flight muscles helps to pump the lungs, producing the airflow that is required for intense, high-frequency vocalizations.
    The only way to test these hypotheses about the origins of flight and echolocation is by mapping the distribution of relevant traits—wings and enlarged cochlea in the skull, for example—onto a family tree of bats to determine the point at which they evolved. Back in the 1990s, we simply did not haven any fossils of bats that had some of these signature characteristics but not others. Just about the only way a bat can become fossilized is if it dies in a place where it is swiftly covered with sediment that protects it from scavengers and microorganisms alike.
  51. According to the passage which of the following is NOT true about bats?
    (A) Bats fly rather than glide like flying squirrels.
    (B) Bats detect prey and obstacles by analyzing echoes.
    (C) Bats rely on sight and smell to find fruit and flowers to eat.
    (D) Bats are the only mammals with the powered flight ability.
  52. Bats are capable of powered flight because of
    (A) their wings’ distinct construction.
    (B) their ability to echolocate.
    (C) their evolution from a gliding ancestor.
    (D) their tail membrane located between their hind legs.
  53. The word “evolve” in line 20 could be best replaced by
    (A) advance
    (B) regress
    (C) transgress
    (D) develop
  54. The word “prey” in line 24 is closest in meaning to
    (A) obstacles.
    (B) quarry.
    (C) foraging.
    (D) echolocation.
  55. According to the passage, which of the two key bat adaptations came first: flight or echolocation?
    (A) The passage does not provide sufficient information about this.
    (B) Flight evolved first, followed by echolocation.
    (C) Echolocation evolved first, followed by flight.
    (D) Both evolved simultaneously.
  56. It can be inferred from the passage that scientists who study bats
    (A) are sure that bats’ ability to fly predates their ability to echolocate.
    (B) did not find out that bats can fly until 6o years ago.
    (C) are not sure that bats really have the capability to echolocate.
    (D) still wonder if bats’ ability to fly and echolocate came simultaneously.
  57. The word “them” in line 25 refers to
    (A) perches.
    (B) trees.
    (C) protobats.
    (D) prey.
  58. Which of the following best expresses the oppositemeaning of the term “negligible” in line 30?
    (A) Significant.
    (B) Unimportant.
    (C) Minor.
    (D) Adequate.
  59. According to the passage, fossils of bats are important because
    (A) they help us determine the origin of bats.
    (B) they help us test the three hypotheses about bats.
    (C) they protect bats from scavengers and microorganisms.
    (D) they providemaps of the distribution of bats’ traits.
  60. The word “they” in line 34 refers to
    (A) hypotheses
    (B) fossils
    (C) traits
    (D) bats
    14 -2.1-
    Questions 61 – 70
    More than five and a half years into the IraqWar, the condition of archaeological sites and antiquities in Iraq remains a frustrating and contentious topic among archaeologists and art historians.
    Two surveys in the past year—one in northern Iraq inMay, the other in the south in June—have persuaded some that the ongoing damage is far less extensive thanmost observers had believed. Yet withmore than 10,000 registered sites and numerous othermounds of earth that may still conceal uncatalogued treasures from the “cradle of civilizations”,many archaeologists question whether the surveyed sites are representative of conditions elsewhere. There has been no comprehensive survey done to establish with certainty exactly what percentage of the 10,000 registered sites has been looted. Military satellite imagery would enable analysts to tell us the whole truth, but the military has not been willing to share it.
    The report of theMay survey, conducted by U.S. and Iraqi investigators, state that none of the sites showed signs of looting or extensive vandalism. Likewise, the June report, by a team of Iraqi and British archaeologists who visited eight sites in the south, found little evidence of looting since the war began. Nevertheless, the report of the Iraqi-British project cautioned that it is difficult and dangerous to generalize from the conditions of the sites the group visited. One big anomaly in both surveys was the prevalence of guards, which should deter looting. But guards at most archaeological sites in Iraq are a rarity. Part of the problem is that although there is a mobile force of 1,500 Iraqi guards with trucks for patrolling the sites, nobody has put up any budget line in for fuel.
    Scholars and analysts must therefore base their estimates on satellite data from commercial sources, on eyewitness accounts and on what is being recovered by police and custom officials. The good news is that a trade embargo and the threat of stiff legal sanctions seem to have dried up the market for looted artifacts. Not all the damage to Iraq’s ancient heritage is the fault of looters. At two sites—Tell al-Lahm and Ubaid—military command posts had been established at the top of the site, according to one of the reports. Shelters for vehicles (tanks and armored personnel carriers) had been created by cutting into the ancient mounds. The construction has presumably dug away previously undisturbed archaeological deposits. At the site of Babylon, military activities have removed areas of surfacemounds totaling six hectares, or more than 13 football fields—to fill sandbags, carve trenches and bulldoze earth for parking lots. In the view of art historian Zainab Bahrani, an Iraqi-born scholar at Columbia University, no serious assessment of the damage will be possible until the U.S. occupation ends.What has become clear to Bahrani, however, is that the looting of the Iraqi National Museum and of archaeological sites is only the tip of the iceberg—just part of a large-scale historical and cultural destruction of archives, libraries and universities, as well asmembers of the scholarly community. “Somany people have died  and become homeless and been forced into exile”, she says, “that it becomes difficult for me to focus on cultural heritage alone.”
  61. The main subject of the passage is
    (A) war as the primary cause of the looting and damage of Iraqi archaeological sites.
    (B) the difficulty of assessing the extent of damage of Iraqi archaeological sites.
    (C) the lack of effort to prevent the damage of Iraqi archaeological sites.
    (D) the relationship between poverty and the looting of archaeological sites in Iraq.
  62. The term “cradle of civilizations” in line 6 refers to
    (A) uncatalogued treasures.
    (B) Iraq.
    (C) archaeological sites.
    (D) antiquities
  63. The word “it” in line 10 refers to
    (A) the military.
    (B) the whole truth.
    (C) the survey.
    (D) satellite imagery.
  64. All of the following are given in the passage as factors that have caused damage to the archaeological sites in Iraq EXCEPT
    (A) the prolonged war in Iraq.
    (B) the reluctance of themilitary to share information.
    (C) the setup of military posts on archaeological sites.
    (D) the lack of priority given to the protection of the sites.
  65. With which of the following statements would the author probably agree?
    (A) The military is solely responsible for the extensive damage and looting of most of the archaeological sites in Iraq.
    (B) The trade embargo has helped perpetuate the looting of artifacts inmany of the archaeological sites in Iraq.
    (C) Only the end of the U.S. occupation can bring an end to the looting of archaeological sites and artifacts in Iraq.
    (D) Stiffer legal sanctionsmay help prevent further looting and damage of archaeological sites in Iraq.
  66.  The word “undisturbed” in line 26 could be best replaced by
    (A) uninterrupted.
    (B) peaceful.
    (C) secure.
    (D) intact.
  67. The author’s attitude toward the problem of the looting and damage of archaeological sites in Iraq is generally
    (A) sympathetic.
    (B) indifferent.
    (C) desperate.
    (D) impatient.
  68. The passage implies that nowadays in Iraq
    (A) art historians are striving to save archeological sites.
    (B) the survival of archaeological sites and artifacts depends entirely on themilitary.
    (C) nothing can be done to save the uncatalogued treasures and sites.
    (D) very fewpeople care about saving archaeological sites.
  69. The author quotes Zainab Bahrani in the last paragraph because
    (A) she is an Iraqi descendant although she was born in the U.S.
    (B) she is an art historian familiar with the culture of Iraq.
    (C) she is a renowned scholar from a prestigious university.
    (D) she is very concerned about the deteriorating situation in Iraq.
  70. The paragraph that follows the last paragraphmost likely deals with
    (A) suggestion of steps that need to be taken to save the sites.
    (B) description of how war and poverty worsen the situation.
    (C) prediction of what might further happen to the sites.
    (D) description of artifacts that have been looted from the sites.

    Questions 71 – 80
    Criminals, like their victims, come in all varieties. But researchers have found that they don’t choose their victims randomly. There’s a reason criminal investigators begin their investigations by creating profiles of victims. It’s because the identity of victims—particularly if there are several victims with differing characteristics—helps investigators determine whether a criminal is targeting a specific kind of person or choosing victims opportunistically. In the field of victimology, one of the central concepts is that of the ‘risk continuum”—there are degrees of risk for a type of crime based on your career, lifestyle, relationships, movements, and even personality, aspects of which are clearly seen from your behavior and attitude. Some factors that make people potential victims are obvious— flashing wads of cash, wearing expensive jewelry, walking alone on back streets. Others are subtler, including posture, walking style, even the ability to read facial expressions.
    The cues add up to the term “exploitability”. David Buss, a psychologist at the University of Texas, is examining a catalogue of traits that seem to invite some people to exploit others. There’s cheatability, sexual exploitability, as well as robability, killability, stalkability, and even sexual assaultability. As adaptations for exploitation evolved, so did defenses to prevent being exploited— wariness toward strangers, cheater-detection sensitivities, and possibly anti-rape defenses. These defenses, in turn, created selection pressure for additional adaptations for exploitation designed to circumvent victim defenses.
    Nowhere does victimology imply that people who stand out as easy targets are to blame for becoming victims. Predators bear sole responsibility for the crimes they commit—and should be held accountable and punished accordingly. Moreover, many attacks are random, and no amount of vigilance could deter them.Whether victims are selected randomly or targeted because of specific characteristics, they bear no responsibility for crimes against them. But by being aware of which cues criminals look for, we can reduce the risk of becoming targets ourselves. In a classic study, researchers Betty Grayson and Morris Stein asked convicted criminals to view a video of pedestrians walking down a busy NewYork sidewalk, unaware that they were being taped. The convicts had been to prison for violent offenses such as armed robbery, rape, andmurder. Within a few seconds, the convicts identified which pedestrians they would have been likely to target.
    What startled the researchers was that there was a clear consensus among the criminals about whom they would have picked as victims—and their choices were not based on gender, race, or age. Some petite, physically slight women were not selected as potential victims, while some large men were. The researchers realized the criminals were assessing the ease with which they could overpower the targets based on several non-verbal signals—posture, body language, pace of walking, length of stride, and awareness of environment. Neither criminals nor victims were consciously aware of these cues. They are what psychologists call “precipitators”, personal attributes that increase a person’s likelihood of being criminally victimized.

  71. Which of the following does the author NOT list as a factor that makes people potential victims of crime?
    (A) Relationships
    (B) Personality
    (C) Lifestyle
    (D) Religion
  72. It can be inferred from paragraph 2 that criminals
    (A) choose their victims based on certain factors.
    (B) choose people who look physically weak.
    (C) choose only people who are rich and successful.
    (D) choose people who do not go along well with others.
  73. The term “opportunistically” in line 5 is closest inmeaning to
    (A) randomly
    (B) accordingly
    (C) consciously
    (D) likely
  74. According to the passage, victimology
    (A) blames people who become victims of crimes for their misfortunes.
    (B) studies the best ways to exploit people and  make them easy targets.
    (C) believes that criminals are entirely responsible for the crimes they commit.
    (D) punishes criminals for the crimes they commit.
  75. The word “them” in line 22 refers to
    (A) specific characteristics.
    (B) victims.
    (C) criminals.
    (D) crimes.
  76. The term “startled” in line 28 is closest in meaning to
    (A) confused.
    (B) troubled.
    (C) relieved.
    (D) assured.
  77. The researchers showed a video of pedestrians walking on a busy New York sidewalk to convicts in order to
    (A) help the convicts identify potential victims.
    (B) expose the pedestrians to danger.
    (C) give the convicts a chance to commit crimes.
    (D) find out how criminals choose their victims.
  78. The following are the findings the researchers obtained from their study EXCEPT
    (A) victims are not chosen based on their racial background.
    (B) victims are not chosen based on whether they look weak or strong.
    (C) victims are not chosen based on their sensitivity to the surroundings.
    (D) victims are not chosen based on how old they are.
  79. According to the passage, we can reduce the risk of becoming crime victims by taking the following precautions EXCEPT
    (A) refrain from wearing valuable rings, bracelets, or necklaces when in public.
    (B) equip ourselves with self-defense skills or tools to protect ourselves.
    (C) bemore responsible for our behavior when in public
    (D) bemore aware of the surroundings we are in.
  80. Which of the following questions about victimology does the passage NOT supply enough information to answer?
    (A) Why do potential victims of crimes behave the way they do?
    (B) What aspects do criminals take into account when picking out their victims?
    (C) Why is being alert of our environment important in protecting ourselves against crime?
    (D) What non-verbal signals transmitted by potential victims attract criminals?

    Questions 81 – 90
    The history of independent Indonesia after 1950 is a story of the failure of successive groups to meet the expectations of democracy generated by the successful struggle for independence. Already by 1957 the democratic experiment had collapsed. A historian of the country reported that corruption was widespread, the territorial unity of the nation was threatened, social justice had not been achieved, economic problems had not been solved, and the expectations generated by the Revolution were frustrated.
    Between 1957and 1965, Sukarno, installed in 1950 as the first president of independent Indonesia, instituted the so-called nation-building Guided Democracy project. Central to Sukarno’s policies of these years was the reconstruction of Jakarta to demonstrate the regime’s commitment to a form of national discipline and the need to attract international recognition. Sukarno’s urban projects have been characterized by some scholars as representative of the competitive international order of the time. Several studies have considered the built form of the transformed capital city as an attempt by Sukarno to foster a national unity and identity for the Indonesian people. Themodern part of Jakarta was intended to raise the self-esteem of the Indonesian people after a long period of colonization.
    As leader of Jakarta during the time of Guided Democracy, Sukarno decided to display in the city his version of what was to be embodied, celebrated, remembered and forgotten. Jakarta is positioned in relation to a homogenous time and space and compared to the glories, not the despairs, of other  cities—Cairo, Rome, Paris and Brasilia. Sukarnomade it clear that the Indonesian revolution was just one of many revolutions in human history. Its uniqueness demanded international recognition. Jakarta, like other cities throughout the world, had to convey an image of a center with its traces of  decolonization and signs being parallel to other world cities. In 1960, soon after Jakarta was declared “Daerah Khusus Ibukota”, Sukarno started his nation-building project to put Jakarta on the map of  world cities.
    At the center of the 900,000 squaremeter grass-covered field, left over by the Dutch colonial regime, he first erected the National Monument, naming the site Independence Square. The whole square complex and the new large thoroughfare running southward were soon to become themain landmarks of his nation-building project. It was not by chance that the city’s first priority was to host the 4th Asian Games in 1962 and, a year later, the first Games of the New Emerging Forces (GANEFO). It was clear that for Sukarno the Games has a ceremonial function. They could project a future in which Jakarta, in the eyes of neighboring nations, could be seen as the beacon of the new emerging forces of Asia. The spectacular events were represented with the six-lane thoroughfare from Independence Square, passing south through a series of newly built highrise office buildings, Hotel Indonesia, the Sarinah Department Store, the Semanggi Bridge, to the Asian Games Complex and the Convention Hall in Senayan, all in the form of amodernist urban environment.

  81. Which of the following is NOT suggested by paragraph 1?
    (A) The country was on the verge of disintegration.
    (B) The struggle to free the country from oppression had failed.
    (C) The gap between the rich and the poor remained wide.
    (D) The people suffered from severe economic hardship.
  82. The term “Revolution” in line 5 refers to
    (A) democratic experiment.
    (B) widespread corruption.
    (C) struggle for independence.
    (D) threat to national unity.
  83. The year 1950 is an important year in the history of Indonesia because
    (A) the expectations of democracy were fulfilled in that year.
    (B) Sukarno was appointed President in that year.
    (C) the period of Guided Democracy began in that year.
    (D) the young nation became politically united in that year.
  84. The word “considered” in line 12 is closest in meaning to
    (A) contemplated.
    (B) respected.
    (C) overruled.
    (D) regarded.
  85. The following are the goals of Sukarno’s transformation of Jakarta EXCEPT
    (A) Jakarta as proof of the existence of democracy in Indonesia.
    (B) Jakarta as a symbol of national unity and identity.
    (C) Jakarta as amanifestation of national self-esteem.
    (D) Jakarta as ameans for Indonesia to gain international recognition.
  86. The author mentions Cairo, Rome, Paris and Brasilia in paragraph 3 in order to
    (A) show that Jakarta was far left behind by other world cities in terms of development.
    (B) show that Jakarta had surpassed those cities as the site of good governance.
    (C) show Sukarno’s ambition tomake Jakarta on par with other world cities.
    (D) showthat Jakarta earned international recognition as a world city like the abovementioned cities.
  87. The word “convey” in line 21 is closest in meaning to
    (A) display.
    (B) attract.
    (C) raise.
    (D) declare.
  88. According to the passage, Sukarno began his nation-building project by (A) declaring Jakarta a “special capital region” in 1960.
    (B) hosting the 4th Asian Games in 1962.
    (C) building the National Monument in 1960.
    (D) hosting the first GANEFO in 1963.
  89. Which of the following best expresses the author’s attitude toward the topic?
    (A) Hostile
    (B) Negative
    (C) Critical
    (D) Neutral
  90. According to the author, Hotel Indonesia, the Sarinah Department Store, the Semanggi Bridge and the Senayan Convention Hall were all built by Sukarno in order to
    (A) demonstrate that Indonesia is part of the modern world.
    (B) build a city appropriate for hosting the 4th Asian Games.
    (C) gain the respect of the developing neighboring countries.
    (D) serve as important landmarks of the emerging nations in South East Asia.
    20 -2.1-
    Questions 91 – 100
    Whilemost Indonesians recognize that the women of Muhammadiyah and NU undertake all types of social, educational, and medical activities, the fact that many of them are also involved in rereading the holy texts of Islam has been largely overlooked. Especially since the 1990s this has become a formative activity for women who graduate from pesantren, or Islamic universities. When we try to find comparable activities in the Muslim world, we cannot simply look at women in other countries doing similar exercises; we must also distinguish their study according to their frame of reference, whether reformist or traditionalist.
    Comparable material for reformist interpretation comes from male and female Muslim feminists in the U.S. Following the reformist methodology, they rely directly on the Qur’an and Hadith. The Egyptian Muslim scholar Muhammad Abduh started to interpret those sources using the method of ijtihad. His reformist method of interpreting the holy sources was continued and elaborated by his student, Rashid Rida. Rida wasmore conservative than Abduh and eventually influenced the reformist movement in Indonesia more than his teacher. Abduh bypassed the traditional Fiqh sources and placed Qur’anic verses about women’s comprehensive veiling, seclusion, polygony, and unilateral divorce rights of the husband in their original social and cultural context. He argued that since those contexts had changed, the modern application of the texts had to be adapted as well. The men and women of Muhammadiyah used this reformist frame.
    To gain knowledge of the Fiqh requires decades of deep study in special schools, few of which are open to female students. But because of the pesantren network connected to NU, Indonesia is one of the few countries where considerable numbers of women have this specific knowledge. Finding a comparative frame for the feminist interpretations of the traditionalist NU scholars was therefore a challenge. Traditionalist Muslims connected to NU started to address problematic issues regarding women’s status during the 1980s, but they always have included reference to the Fiqh texts. It remains exceptional that in Indonesian Islam, reformist Muhammadiyah and traditionalist NU women are participating in reinterpreting women’s lives and rights. Muhammadiyah women did this nearly from the start of their movement in 1917, gradually becoming well versed in Islamic learning. NU women started later, by the 1950s.
    It is interesting that in the early years of the 21st century NU interpretations concerning women have become more progressive than the reformist interpretations. These processes largely developed within the archipelago, seldom drawing the attention of Muslim and non-Muslim scholars from outside Indonesia another point of interest is that while the rest of the Muslim world reconsiders the merits of reformist or traditionalist interpretations, in Indonesia the two modes have come to borrow each other’s methods. Traditionalists now include references to secular sources such as philosophy, sociology, and economics, while reformist are returning to a deeper study of the Fiqh sources.
  91. The main idea of the passage is (A) Muslim women in Indonesia are not as advanced as their counterparts in the U.S. in their involvement in rereading the Qur’an and the Hadith.
    (B) The traditionalist viewof the Qur’an and the Fiqh in Indonesia is more dominant than the reformist view.
    (C) Nowadays Muslim women in Indonesia can no longer be simply and rigidly grouped into reformists and traditionalists.
    (D) The problem that Muslim women in Indonesia have to address is the ongoing competition between Muhammadiyah and N.U.
  92. The word “elaborated” in line 11 is closest in meaning to
    (A) modified.
    (B) regenerated.
    (C) expanded.
    (D) perpetuated.
  93. According to the passage, U.S.Muslim feminists are different from Indonesian Muslim woman because
    (A) in the U.S. Muslim feminists are predominantly reformist.
    (B) U.S. Muslim feminists are followers of Muhammad Abduh.
    (C) U.S. Muslim feminists use Rashid Rida’s methodology.
    (D) U.S.Muslim feminists have amore modern view of Islam.
  94. The word “unilateral” in line 14 could be best replaced by
    (A) independent.
    (B) mutual.
    (C) participatory.
    (D) one-sided.
  95. The word “their” in line 15 refers to
    (A) women.
    (B) Qur’anic verses.
    (C) traditional Fiqh verses.
    (D) unilateral divorce rights of the husband.
  96. Why is the author of the opinion that Muslim women in Indonesia are more knowledgeable in
    Islamic teaching than women in many other Muslim countries?
    (A) Because Muslim women in Indonesia are active members of two major Islamic organizations, Muhammadiyah and .N.U.
    (B) Because Indonesian Muslim women not only have knowledge of the Qur’an and the Hadith but also of the Fiqh.
    (C) Because Muslim women in Indonesia have been actively involved in rereading the holy texts since the first half of the twentieth century.
    (D) Because Indonesian Muslim women attend pesantren and Islamic universities.
  97. The word “they” in line 23 refers to
    (A) feminist interpretations.
    (B) problematic issues.
    (C) traditionalist Muslims.
    (D) Fiqh texts.
  98. Which of the following is what Muslim scholars outside Indonesia tend to overlook in their studies of Indonesian Muslim women in the new millenium?
    (A) many Indonesian Muslim women are involved in rereading Islamic texts.
    (B) in rereading the holy texts, Muslim women in Indonesia have more than one frame of reference.
    (C) N.U. women aremore progressive than Muhammadiyah women in their interpretations of the holy texts concerning women.
    (D) Muhammadiyah women startedmuch earlier in rereading Islamic texts than N.U. women.
  99. According to the passage, which is NOT true about IndonesianMuslim women’s involvement in rereading the holy texts?
    (A) They borrow each other’smethods of interpretation.
    (B) They are sharply divided into reformist and traditionalist camps.
    (C) They are concerned with the application of the texts to women’s issues.
    (D) They do not undergo the same processes as Muslim women in other parts of the world do.
  100. The passage would probably be part of an assigned reading in which of the following courses?
    (A) Introduction to Islamic Studies
    (B) History of Islam in Indonesia
    (C) Women’smovements in Indonesia
    (D) Introduction toWomen’s Studies
Tags »

You might also like this post..



Untuk membeli buku ini kamu bisa langsung buka web atau klik Gambar dibawah ini... more detail


Soal Ujian Praktek KKPI SMK PGRI 3 Jakarta Petunjuk : 1.    Isilah biodata lengkap. 2.    Isilah pertanyaan pada halaman 2 3.    Save as file ini dengan nama file :... more detail


Pendidikan Agama Islam Kelas XI * Silang ( x ) huruf a, b, c, d, dan e pada jawaban yang benar ! Berikut ini termasuk perilaku muslim / muslimah... more detail
Kumpulan Soal IPS kelas 9 (3)– dari bank soal untuk menghadapi ujian sekolah

Kumpulan Soal IPS kelas 9 (3)– dari bank soal untuk menghadapi ujian sekolah

D. Pilihlah jawaban yang paling tepat! 1. Perubahan yang bersifat progres adalah perubahan yang … . a. membawa kemunduran b. membawa keuntungan c. menuju perilaku ala masyarakat Barat d.... more detail
Kelas / Program      : XI IPA-IPS ( SEBELAS  IPA-IPS  )

Kelas / Program : XI IPA-IPS ( SEBELAS IPA-IPS )

112 Die in France from July Heat Wave             A heat wave that struck Europe last month killed 112 people in France, on Thursday, many of them were elderly.... more detail


KUMPULAN  SOAL   KEWARGANEGARAAN KELAS  XI   SEMESTER  1 Budaya politik adalah pandangan politik yang mempengaruhi sikap,orientasi,dan pilihan politik seseorang. Pernyataan tersebut dikemukakan oleh…. a.Almond dan S.Verba b.Marbun c.Larry Diamond d.Mochtar... more detail